The (O2) Oxygen Sensors is often referred to as the “O2” sensor because O2 is the chemical formula for oxygen.
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So, Monitoring (O2) Oxygen Sensors levels in the exhaust is a way of gauging the fuel mixture. Consequently, the (O2) Oxygen Sensor tells the computer if the fuel mixture is burning rich (less oxygen) or lean (more oxygen).
Oxygen sensors produce a voltage based on the amount of oxygen in the exhaust. Large amounts of oxygen result from lean mixtures and result in low voltage output from the O2 sensor. Rich mixtures release lower amounts of oxygen into the exhaust, therefore, the O2 sensor voltage is high. The engine must be at normal operating temperature before the oxygen sensor is tested.