Fuel Pressure Regulators – Function And Failure Symptoms

All fuel-injected engines have a fuel pressure regulator to maintain a regulated high-pressure level.

Fuel pressure regulators  must keep the pressure constant in order for all of the components of the fuel injection system to work properly.

If the pressure is out of this range then the vehicle will not run or will run inefficiently.

Fuel Pressure Regulators
Fuel Pressure Regulators

Fuel Pressure Regulators-So, Fuel pressure can run between 25 to 60 pounds of pressure depending on the vehicle and manufacturer.

There is a main fuel line from the fuel tank to the fuel rail.

Also, a return fuel line from the fuel pressure regulator.

This return line is located downstream of all the injectors.

Fuel pressure regulators uses a diaphragm and spring combination within its housing with a vacuum source on the top side of the diaphragm.

Consequently, This is to counteract the spring pressure when high demand dictates that higher fuel pressure is necessary.

A sudden fall in vacuum will affect fuel pressure. This happens because the fuel injectors open wide quite suddenly. A few moments are needed by the fuel injectors to catch the pressure created. During these moments, the fuel pressure regulator temporarily shuts the fuel return line. As a result, This helps in boosting up the fuel pressure for a few moments.

The Computer uses Sensors to determine:

  • Air temperature
  • Air density
  • Engine load
  • Throttle position
  • Engine temperature
Sensors
Sensors

Using this information, a computer decides the strategy that will result in best performance of the engine.

Fuel pressure regulators commonly fails in one of two ways:

When it fails to hold pressure, it provides too little fuel to the engine, causing a lean mixture condition.

When the fuel pressure regulator gets stuck and builds up more pressure then it should, it’ll cause the injectors to deliver too much fuel, causing a rich mixture (high pressure) condition.

Fuel Pressure Regulator Failure Symptoms:

  • Spark plugs blackened
  • The dipstick smells of gasoline
  • Gasoline drips out of the tailpipe
  • Engine stalls
  • Gasoline in the vacuum hose
  • Deceleration problems
  • Bad fuel mileage

Testing For Vacuum And Leaks

The easiest way to test fuel pressure regulators is with the use of a fuel pressure gauge.

Fuel Pressure Tester
Fuel Pressure Tester

So, This test checks the operation of the fuel pressure regulator to make sure it changes line pressure in response to changes in engine vacuum. In addition, This is necessary to maintain the proper operating pressure behind the injectors and to compensate for changes in engine load.

With the engine running, disconnect the vacuum hose from the pressure regulator. As a rule, fuel system pressure should increase 8 to 10 psi with the line disconnected. No change would indicate a faulty pressure regulator, or a leaky or plugged vacuum line.

Also, when the vacuum hose is disconnected from the regulator, check the inside of the hose for any wetness that would indicate fuel is being sucked into the hose. There should be none. The diaphragm inside the regulator is leaking if there is fuel in the hose.

As a result, This will cause a drop in fuel pressure, and allow fuel to be sucked into the intake manifold upsetting the air/fuel mixture. So, If the diaphragm is leaking, replace the regulator.

NOTE:

Always replace your fuel filter at the recommended car manufacturer intervals. Also a clogged filter will cause fuel pressure to drop and damage the fuel pump as well. So it’s more cost effective to service the fuel filter at regular intervals.

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