A Compression test is a good way to measure the condition of the rings, cylinders, and valves.
If your engine is running rough or is lacking power consider doing a compression test.
Most manufacturers and technicians believe it is important to perform a compression test every time a tune-up is done as part of preventative maintenance. Consult your vehicle owner’s manual for tune-up intervals. By performing a compression test, internal engine malfunctions, such as bad valves, piston rings or excessive carbon buildup, can be detected before they cause irreparable damage. It benefits the owner to be aware of these problems so they can make an informed decision whether to invest in repairs or sell the vehicle.
COMPRESSION TEST (DRY)
- You should have a warm engine, the ignition disabled, and all spark plugs removed.
- In addition always wear protective clothing and gloves while working around a hot engine.
- While doing the test, the throttle and choke plates must be fully open for an accurate test.
- Have your helper fully depress the accelerator while he is cranking the engine.
- Avoid any flames around the engine during the test.
- First of all connect the tester to a cylinder and turn the engine over 6 to 8 compression strokes.
- You will be able to hear the cranking speed slow as the tested cylinder comes up on it’s compression stroke.
- Note how fast the compression increases and write down the highest reading.
- Test all cylinders the same way with the same number of compression strokes.
INTERPRETATION OF THE DATA
There is more than one school of thought on what the compression of the average engine should be. As a general rule a compression of 135 PSI or better is excellent, and a compression of 85 PSI or lower is extremely bad.
The most desirable situation is that all cylinders give the same or close to the same reading, and that reading is above 135 PSI. Uneven readings are not uncommon on worn engines, and as long as the difference between the highest and lowest readings are no more than 21 PSI and the lowest reading is 100 PSI or better, then the engine is acceptable.
Greater differences between cylinders indicate worn or broken rings, leaky or sticky valves or a combination of all.
When you were observing the gauge during the cranking of the engine, you should have noticed the way each cylinder pumped up.
Usually, a cylinder will produce about 40 PSI on the first stroke and about 35 PSI on each additional stroke until the maximum compression is reached.
Problem cylinders may have trouble pumping up and may increase by only something like 10 PSI per stroke.
You may be able to crank these cylinders enough times to come close to the other cylinder’s total PSI, and this is one reason to limit the number of compression strokes.
As a result poor rings usually cause this condition. Be aware that a cylinder suffering from excessive oiling, even from bad rings, can yield high compression test results because the excess oil in the cylinder seals the rings. Other symptoms may give you a clue to the problem (a smoking engine).
There are some variables that affect the readings obtained from compression testing:
Cranking speed, Altitude, Temperature, Worn camshaft lobes, High performance long duration profile camshafts.
Each cylinder should have the same cranking speed. This may mean jumping your battery to maintain the speed.
The effect of the two camshafts above is the same, one of lower readings. Compression Test data is usually based on 14.7 atmospheric pressure and 59F at sea level. There are factors to compensate for the different altitudes and the corresponding temperature differences. These are as follows:
- 1000′ = .9711
- 2000′ = .9428
- 3000′ = .9151
- 4000′ = .8881
- 5000′ = .8617
- 6000′ = .8359
- 7000′ = .8106
- 8000′ = .7860
The equivalent compression reading for a cylinder that should be 135 PSI by the data at 5000′ would be 135 x .8617 = 116.33.
COMPRESSION TEST (WET)
Many automotive books describe a dry and a wet compression test. Usually these tests must be interpreted together to isolate the trouble in cylinders or valves. Unfortunately, the wet compression test is unreliable when performed on engines where the cylinders are horizontal (like the old VW).
To perform the wet test, a tablespoon of oil is poured into the cylinder through the sparkplug hole before checking the compression. On horizontal cylinders, oil does not spread evenly over the piston crown, a necessity for this test.
With the above said, you squirt the tablespoon of oil (SAE 30W is fine) into a cylinder that is reading low. Crank the engine two revolutions or so to spread the oil then retest the cylinder. If the compression comes up markedly, 40 PSI or more, the trouble is poor ring to bore sealing. If compression doesn’t increase much, about 5 PSI, then the problem is probably with the valves. It could also be pulled head studs or a warped cylinder head.
- Charge the battery.
- Disable the ignition system.
- Disable the fuel injection system.
- Remove all of the spark plugs.
- Block the throttle plate wide open.
- Start with the compression gauge at zero, and crank the engine through 6 compression strokes (6 puffs).
- Make the compression check for each cylinder. Record the reading.
- If a cylinder has low compression, inject approximately 15 ml (one tablespoon) of engine oil into the combustion chamber through the spark plug hole, recheck the compression and record the reading.
- The minimum in any one cylinder should not be less than 70% of the highest cylinder. No cylinder should read less than 100 PSI. For example, if the highest pressure in any one cylinder is 150 PSI, the lowest allowable pressure for any other cylinder would be 105 PSI.
Interpreting the readings.
As a result compression builds up quickly and evenly to the specified compression for each cylinder.
Piston Rings Leaking:
Consequently compression is low on the first stroke.
Compression builds up with the following strokes but does not reach normal.
Your compression improves considerably when you add oil.
Your compression is low on the first stroke.
Compression usually does not build up on the following strokes.
Your compression does not improve much when you ad oil.